drofi


FACTS, NEWS & FUN


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   The fotos and texts from 2010 are available in ARCHIVES 2010: 
            

It is 13:33 Central European Time



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Click the pics below to see the videos!


2017-11-14: Zayn - Dusk till Dawn

2017-11-11: Lonely Boy -The Black Keys


2017-08-26: Micromys minutus - New litter





2017-08-11: The Script - Rain


2017-08-10: Mark Forster - Sowieso
 

2017-07-02: Sofi Tukker - Drinkee




2017-05-11: Harry Styles - Sign of the times


2017-05-10: Ed Sheeran - Shape of You


2017-05-09: Alice Merton - No Roots




2016-10-20: Valentine - Wild Heart


2016-10-01: Imany - Clap your hands



2016-09-20: Kings of Leon - Waste a Moment


2016-08-20: Kungs - This Girl





2016-07-28:




2016-07-03: Maxim - Willkommen im Club


2016
-04-09: Three doors down - be like that



2016-02-20: Adele - When we were young


2016-02-07: Volbeat - Cape of Our Hero


2016-01-11: David Bowie. Look up here, I'm in heaven




2016-01-01: Science Breakthrough of the year 2015: crispr cas



2015-12-27: Clathrus archeri


2015-12-24: Merry Christmas



2015-12-23: Fly with me
Music from 12 Stones - Stay




2015-12-06:



2015-
11-13:

2015-11-01:


2015-10-31: The Bosshoss




2015-08-30:






2015-08-02: The Dead South - In Hell I'll be in good Company


2015-07-03: FahrIn Urlaub - iDisco


Hannah Wants & Chris Lorenzo - Rhymes



2015-05-24: Tremendous Pain:




2015-01-08 
                                                   


2014-07-08: http://www.fancymicebreeders.com


2014-04-18:





2014-02-24: Some of my Pygmy Mice in their nest. Click the pic for the video.




2014-02-09: Interspecies Love Affair – Deer Mouse grooming House Mice (Click the pic)



2014-02-03: Our latest guest - Pflegekatze Gina




2014-01-17: Julia Engelmann - Hörsaalslam (Click the pic)



Asaf Avidan: One day / Reckoning Song
 

2014-01-12: Recessive Red Merle Banded



2014-01-10: Ed Sheeran - I See Fire




Zimmerwölfchen: Click the pic for the video




2013-12-29: Click the pic for the video!

Die älteste im Rudel ist wieder fit. Flocke musste Heiligabend mit akuter Atemnot zum Notarzt. Es wurde Herzinsuffizienz und Lungenödem (Wasser in der Lunge) diagnostiziert. Sie ist dem Tod noch einmal entgangen. Vielen Dank an Herrn Dr. Pötz und die Pharmaindustrie!



2013-12-09: Click the pic for the video



2013-10-06: Bon Jovi- Bed of Roses (click for the video)


2013-07-28: New tetraploid Passiflora hybrid ((P.kermesina x P. gritensis) x P. edmundoi) -> 4n


Nice diploid sister, same cross:



2013-07-14: Our latest guest - Pflegekatze Tasha




2013-07-02: Recessive Red Merle:



2013-07-01: Recessive Red Sable Merle one day before giving birth to 10 babies:



2013-06-30: Merle red and Merle black



The next three days - Moby Mistake





2013-05-01: Recessive Red Satin Merle



2013-04-21: Robin Thicke – Blurred Lines




2013-03-22: Our latest guest (Pflegekatze) Lucky:



2013-03-21: Black + Red Merle?

This satin mouse is offspring from my program to breed recessive red merle. The genetic background is not understood. It could be a new germline mutation or a just another somatic mutation.



2013-03-11: Choco Merle



2013-03-06: Nelly



2013-03-01: Discrete genetic modules are responsible for complex burrow evolution in Peromyscus mice

 

Weber et al., Nature Volume: 493, Pages: 402–405 doi:10.1038/nature11816

 

Relative to morphological traits, we know little about how genetics influence the evolution of complex behavioural differences in nature. It is unclear how the environment influences natural variation in heritable behaviour, and whether complex behavioural differences evolve through few genetic changes, each affecting many aspects of behaviour, or through the accumulation of several genetic changes that, when combined, give rise to behavioural complexity. Here we show that in nature, oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus) build complex burrows with long entrance and escape tunnels, and that burrow length is consistent across populations, although burrow depth varies with soil composition. This burrow architecture is in contrast with the small, simple burrows of its sister species, deer mice (P. maniculatus). When investigated under laboratory conditions, both species recapitulate their natural burrowing behaviour. Genetic crosses between the two species reveal that the derived burrows of oldfield mice are dominant and evolved through the addition of multiple genetic changes. In burrows built by first-generation backcross mice, entrance-tunnel length and the presence of an escape tunnel can be uncoupled, suggesting that these traits are modular. Quantitative trait locus analysis also indicates that tunnel length segregates as a complex trait, affected by at least three independent genetic regions, whereas the presence of an escape tunnel is associated with only a single locus. Together, these results suggest that complex behaviours—in this case, a classic ‘extended phenotype’—can evolve through multiple genetic changes each affecting distinct behaviour modules.

 

Please notice the original paper, an additional video of P. polionotus exiting through an escape tunnel and burrow casting method,  and the supporting additional material here:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v493/n7432/full/nature11816.html


2013-02-27: Our latest guest (Pflegekatze) Emmi



Chilloutarea Tetracolor buck:



2014-02-24:

Papa Maus tut, was Mama Maus sagt:

Spezielle Ultraschallrufe der Mutter lösen väterliches Verhalten aus.

(Scroll down for english original)

 

Mäuseväter sind nicht gerade treusorgend – von allein kommen sie kaum auf die Idee, sich um ihren Nachwuchs zu kümmern. Gut, dass es da die resoluten Mäusemütter gibt: Sind sie von ihren Kindern getrennt, geben sie ihren Partnern klare Anweisungen, sich gefälligst der Kleinen anzunehmen. Dazu benutzen sie sowohl Ultraschall-Rufe als auch Duftmarken, hat ein japanisches Forscherteam jetzt gezeigt.

Mäusemütter haben's schwer: Sie müssen sich im Allgemeinen allein um ihren Nachwuchs kümmern – ihr Partner zieht sich elegant aus der Affäre. Lediglich unter sehr beengten räumlichen Verhältnissen, wie sie etwa im Laborkäfig herrschen, übernimmt der Herr einen Teil der elterlichen Pflichten, er wärmt die Kleinen beispielsweise und bietet ihnen Schutz. Doch was genau ist es, das bei diesem erzwungenen engen Zusammenleben die väterlichen Instinkte auslöst? Diese Frage hat sich jetzt das Team um Hong-Xiang Liu von der Kanazawa University gestellt und, auf der Suche nach einer Antwort, verschiedene Mäusefamilien untersucht.
Zunächst trennten die Forscher die Väter und Mütter für wenige Minuten von ihren Kleinen. In einigen Fällen blieben die Eltern während dieser Phase zusammen, in anderen wurden sie in getrennten Käfigen untergebracht. Anschließend wurden sie wieder in den Familienkäfig gesetzt. Schnell stellte sich heraus: Bereits wenige Minuten der Trennung reichten bei den Vätern aus, um jegliche Fürsorge gegenüber den eigenen Kindern zu vergessen – vorausgesetzt, die Männchen waren in dieser Zeit allein und in einem sauberen Käfig untergebracht.
Blieben sie dagegen während der Trennung mit den Müttern zusammen, kümmerten sie sich nach ihrer Rückkehr vorbildlich um ihren Nachwuchs: Sie trugen ihn zurück ins Nest, buddelten ihn in den kuscheligen Holzspänen ein und leckten ihn fürsorglich ab. Körperlicher Kontakt mit der Mutter war dabei jedoch offensichtlich nicht der entscheidende Auslöser: Selbst wenn die Eltern durch eine Plexiglasscheibe getrennt gewesen waren und sich lediglich hören, riechen und sehen konnten, zeigten die Väter anschließend das fürsorgliche Verhalten.

Was also ist es – hören, sehen oder riechen? Ein wesentlicher Faktor ist offenbar das Hören, zeigten weitere Tests. Denn wenn die Mäusemütter von ihren Kindern getrennt sind, stoßen sie ganz spezielle Ultraschall-Rufe aus. Darauf reagieren die Väter mit dem beobachteten Verhalten, berichten die Wissenschaftler – selbst dann, wenn die Rufe aus dem Lautsprecher kommen und gar kein Weibchen in der Nähe ist.

Doch das ist offenbar noch nicht die ganze Geschichte. Auch die Nase spielt anscheinend eine wichtige Rolle. Als die Forscher den Mäusemännern nämlich Wachspfropfen in die Ohren stopften, ließen sie sich immer noch zur Fürsorge animieren – wenn sie die Mutter riechen konnten. Zusammenfassend könne man also sagen, dass die Weibchen in einer Notsituation – wenn sie selbst von ihrem Nachwuchs getrennt sind – den Männchen sowohl per Duftmarke als auch per akustischem Signal sagen, was sie zu tun haben, meinen Liu und seine Kollegen. Diese Ergebnisse werfen nach Ansicht der Forscher ein neues Licht auf das Verständnis von Paarbindungen und elterlichem Verhalten – auch wenn sie aus einer für die Mäuse unnatürlichen Umgebung stammen und bisher nur bei einem einzigen Labormausstamm beobachtet wurden. Als nächstes wollen sie jetzt untersuchen, welche molekularen Mechanismen genau an dem Prozess beteiligt sind und ob die üblichen Verdächtigen unter den sozial wirksamen Hormonen – Oxytocin, Vasopressin und Co – hier eine Rolle spielen.

 

Quelle: Ilka Lehnen-Beyel, http://www.wissenschaft.de/wissenschaft/news/316609.html

 

Original: Hong-Xiang Liu (Kanazawa University, Japan) et al.: Nature Communications, doi: 10.1038/ncomms2336

 

Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates

 

Hing-Xiang Liu et al., Nature Communications Volume: 4, Article number: 1346 DOI: doi:10.1038/ncomms2336,

 

Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here the authors report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone stimulation. Without these signals or in the absence of maternal mates, the sires do not retrieve their pups within 5 min. These results show that, in mice, the maternal parent communicates to the paternal parent to encourage pup care. This new paradigm may be useful in the analysis of the parental brain during paternal care induced by interactive communication.

 

See fulltext at http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v4/n1/full/ncomms2336.html


2013-02-23: Black Tan Merle Satin (Tan diluted by roan-like pattern)




2013-02-21: Recessive Red Merle babies 5 weeks old



2013-02-19: Chilloutarea Mousery's best recessive red head



2013-02-17: Merle doe



Our latest guest (Pflegekatze) Zinga chilling on the window sill



2013-01-27: Geheimoperation Wasser -

Wie die EU-Kommission Wasser zur Handelsware machen will

 

Die EU-Kommission will den Markt für die Privatisierung der Wasserrechte freigeben. Monitor hat darüber am 13.12.2012 eine Sendung ausgestrahlt :


 

Wenn auch Sie gegen diese Privatisierung sind, dann unterschreiben Sie bitte auf dem u.a. Link unten. Bis Oktober 2013 haben wir die Chance uns zu wehren um das Vorhaben zu stoppen.


 

Es geht darum, dass die EU-Zuständigen den Markt öffnen für eine Privatisierung der Wasserrechte. Portugal wurde bereits dazu gezwungen und muss jetzt den 4-fachen Wasserpreis bezahlen. Griechenland wird es nicht anders gehen. Privatisierung bedeutet, der Wasserpreis kann zukünftig vom Börsenkurs abhängen, Wasser könnte ein Exportschlager werden, die Qualität wird nicht mehr nach gängigen Richtlinien bestimmt, Großkonzerne kontrollieren, wenn`s drauf ankommt.


2013-01-05: Young Peromyscus polionotus (Weißfußmäuse), which will be shared tomorrow:


2012-12-25: Hundeortung mit GPS + GMS + Smartphone.

Zum Download des pdf bitte das Bild anklicken.




2012-11-04: Pinkeyed Tricolor:


,

2012-10-28: Alien Nelly after Surgery:



2012-10-22: Our latest guests  / Pflegekatzen: Hanka und Linus



New Merle Babies:



2012-10-20: Altes Fieber - Die toten Hosen



2012-09-12: Weißfußmäuse (oldfield mouse or beach mouse, Peromyscus polionotus)      





Foto: Weißfußmäuse kurz vor der Weitergabe an andere Züchter.


Besonders viel Freude bereiten mir die Hybriden aus Weißfuß und Hirschmaus:


Die Hirschmäuse sind extrem widerstandsfähig und kälteresistent, sie kommen ja sogar in Alaska vor. Im letzten Jahr haben sie bei mir auf der Terrasse in Januar bei minus 15 Grad geworfen und völlig problemlos die Jungen aufgezogen, dabei hatten sie nur einen Nistkasten mit Heu als Kälteschutz. Hirschmäuse haben einen etwas kompakteren Körperbau, kürzeren Kopf und größere Augen, entsprechen also mehr dem Kindchenschema und werden daher von vielen Leuten als noch niedlicher empfunden:


Ich habe die F1-Hybriden miteinander verpaart und die resultierenden farbigen Nachkommen wieder an Wildtyp (agouti) Hirschmäuse gepaart und das zyklisch von Generation zu Generation wiederholt. Inzwischen habe ich daher Hybriden, die fast nur noch Erbgut der Hirschmäuse besitzen, jedoch die Farbmutationen der Weissfüße tragen. Sobald ich davon alle Farben in ausreichender Zahl habe werde ich mich ganz auf die Nachzucht dieser Tiere konzentrieren. Sie sind sehr vital, fruchtbar und aktiv.

Beim umgekehrten Weg, also der stetigen Rückkreuzung der Hybriden an Weißfüße, ist eine seltsame Farbform mit schwarzen Augen aufgetaucht, die ich bisher noch nicht gesehen hatte:



2012-06-20: Chilloutarea Merle Selections June 2012:

a/at B/b E/e me+/me+ sa/sa



a/a B/B E/E me+/me+


a/at B/b  me+/me+



2012-06-16: Mouse breeders have seeds for their rodents and should share some  with wild birds 365 days a year: year-round feeding helps to stabelize populations!

 





 

Prof. Dr. P. Berthold has been director of the Max-Planck-Institute for Ornithology and is one of the world's most important ornithologists (Garciella 2005, 121:44), http://orn.mpg.de/mitarbeiter/berthold.html.

http://www.welt.de/wissenschaft/tierwelt/article5910484/Voegel-fuettern-ist-unsere-moralische-Pflicht.html

http://www.sielmann-stiftung.de/de/presse/pressemeldungen/pressemeldung.php?we_objectID=198


2012-06-12: The Gang




2012-05-27: Patrick Street - Music for a Found Harmonium




2012-05-11: Innate versus learned odour processing in the mouse olfactory bulb


The mammalian olfactory system mediates various responses, including aversive behaviours to spoiled foods and fear responses to predator odours. In the olfactory bulb, each glomerulus represents a single species of odorant receptor. Because a single odorant can interact with several different receptor species, the odour information received in the olfactory epithelium is converted to a topographical map of multiple glomeruli activated in distinct areas in the olfactory bulb. To study how the odour map is interpreted in the brain, we generated mutant mice in which olfactory sensory neurons in a specific area of the olfactory epithelium are ablated by targeted expression of the diphtheria toxin gene. Here we show that, in dorsal-zone-depleted mice, the dorsal domain of the olfactory bulb was devoid of glomerular structures, although second-order neurons were present in the vacant areas. The mutant mice lacked innate responses to aversive odorants, even though they were capable of detecting them and could be conditioned for aversion with the remaining glomeruli. These results indicate that, in mice, aversive information is received in the olfactory bulb by separate sets of glomeruli, those dedicated for innate and those for learned responses.

Kobayakawa et al., Nature 450, 503-508 (22 November 2007)


2012-04-27:Mouse on Nepal Airlines jet delays Hong Kong flight


Mice on planes are regarded as a safety hazard.

 

A Nepal Airlines Boeing 757 has been grounded at Hong Kong's airport after a mouse was seen in the cockpit, an airline official has told the BBC.

Passengers face a second night in a hotel as efforts continue to trap the stowaway rodent. Nepal Airlines General Manager Sita Gurung said that the plane would have to remain in Hong Kong until the mouse was caught.

The airline said that the mouse posed a potential safety risk.

 

2012-04-17: Peromyscus maniculatus x P. polionotus (F2 Hybrids)

One of the bucks is pink eyed and will be the father for backcrossing to P. maniculatus.



2012-04-09:  Fellow travellers: a concordance of colonization patterns between mice and men in the North Atlantic region

 

House mice (Mus musculus) are commensals of humans and therefore their phylogeography can reflect human colonization and settlement patterns. Previous studies have linked the distribution of house mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA clades to areas formerly occupied by the Norwegian Vikings in Norway and the British Isles. Norwegian Viking activity also extended further westwards in the North Atlantic with the settlement of Iceland, short-lived colonies in Greenland and a fleeting colony in Newfoundland in 1000 AD. Jones et al. investigated whether house mouse mtDNA sequences reflect human history in these other regions as well.

Results: House mice samples from Iceland, whether from archaeological Viking Age material or from modern-day specimens, had an identical mtDNA haplotype to the clade previously linked with Norwegian Vikings. From mtDNA and microsatellite data, the modern-day Icelandic mice also share the low genetic diversity shown by their human hosts on Iceland. Viking Age mice from Greenland had an mtDNA haplotype deriving from the Icelandic haplotype, but the modern-day Greenlandic mice belong to an entirely different mtDNA clade. The modern day Icelandic and Newfoundland mice belong to the subspecies M. m. domesticus, the Greenlandic mice to M. m. musculus.

Conclusions: In the North Atlantic region, human settlement history over a thousand years is reflected remarkably by the mtDNA phylogeny of house mice. In Iceland, the mtDNA data show the arrival and continuity of the house mouse population to the present day, while in Greenland the data suggest the arrival, subsequent extinction and recolonization of house mice - in both places mirroring the history of the European human host populations. If house mice arrived in Newfoundland with the Viking settlers at all, then, like the humans, their presence was also fleeting and left no genetic trace. The continuity of mtDNA haplotype in Iceland over 1000 years illustrates that mtDNA can retain the signature of the ancestral house mouse founders. Jones et al. also show that, in terms of genetic variability, house mouse populations may also track their host human populations.

 

Have a look to the interesting fulltext:

Excerpt from Open Access Article Jones et al., BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012, 12:35.




2012-04-05: These dogs are all rescued

For more info visit http://www.k9frisbee.com/rescue/


2012-04-02: Blind Dog Living in a Trash Pile Gets Rescued

When you see Fiona in the trash, your heart will break...but just wait til the end. You'll love it.




2012-03-21: Chilloutarea Mousery Merle Selections











2012-02-18: long lasting nests for mice



2012-01-19: Ann Marlowe - A VIP mousebreeder and great freelance bassist in the USA - Don’t get much around any more www.annmarlowe.com



2012-01-15: Merle available! Click the pic for details.

  


2011-12-20:



2011-12-07: Merle available! Click the pic for details.



2011-12-05: One of my Merle stud bucks. Nice size of body and ears, but small eyes. A lot of breeding is still needed to improve Merle...


2011-12-03_ LOL



2011-11-06: Merle inheritance

 

I breed many Merle and mine are a recessive trait. Nevertheless even from breeding Merle x Merle I do not always get 100% Merle, many are roan-like. Breeding roan-like  x roan-like can produce some Merle again, but even less. Most times I breed solid colored carriers form crossing Merle x solid color for improving the type. This gives 75% black, some roan-like and only a small number of Merle, which  is the reason for slow progress in improving the type.

Merle is not just a recessive inheritance, there are additional genetic factors involved, probably an unstable factor, meaning that during embryonic development, some of the roan-like cells of the embryo mutate back to the basic color.

“Roan like” mice are not identical with the original dominant roan described by Green in 1966. Roan is dominant, while the phenotypically very similar “Roan-like”, which is the basis for Merle, is recessive. In Merle the roaning is stopped more in areas, leaving solid patches.

Merle mice have the same name as Merle dogs (which are a dominant genetic trait), but have a very different genetic background (they are recessive) and have no health problems. They just look similar to Merle dogs. One could compare this with dominant and recessive red mice, which look similar too, but are very different regarding genetics and health.

Soon I will have some Merle, "Roan-like" and carriers for sharing again and will post pictures here.


2011-10-04: Chilloutarea Mice arrived in Thailand and will be the start of showtype Tricolors in Asia

19 does (5-7 weeks old) and 7 bucks (8-10 weeks old) from two promissing Chilloutarea linebreeding lines arrived in Bangkok. It has been a good piece of work to realise this dream of our Thai friends, but finally we did it! This will be the start of many showtype Tricolors all over Asia!



2011-10-02: Hairy John

We did not plan to breed him, but now he is there and we love him!





2011-09-03: OTC drugs for animal health? A statement

 

The widespread use of antibiotics both inside and outside of medicine is playing a significant role in the emergence of resistant bacteria. Although there was low levels of preexistent antibacterial resistance before the widespread use of antibiotics evolutionary pressure from their use has played a role in the develop of multidrug resistance varieties and the spread of resistance between bacterial species.

In some countries antibiotics are sold over the counter (OTC) without a prescription which also leads to the creation of resistant strains.

Some years ago Tetracyclines have been very helpful substances against many bacterial infections in rodents. Nowadays resistance is a significant limitation with the use of Tetracyclines. Doxycyline just does not work anymore against widespread strains of Mycoplasm. Enrofloxacine is the only antibiotic still working against them, but resistance is already a growing problem.

 

The same is true for antifungal drugs. Clinical resistance to antifungal agents was rare until the late 1980s, with only isolated cases in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. The incidence of fungal infections, including resistant infections, has increased during the last 10 years, reflecting increased incidence of immunodeficiency associated with cancer chemotherapy, organ and bone marrow transplantation, and the HIV epidemic. Although the prevalence of drug resistance in fungi is below that observed in bacteria, many mycologists consider that selective pressure will, over time, lead to more widespread resistance.

 

What is the consequense, shouldn’t we use antibiotics anymore? Of course we should! But we should use them with care.

 

  1. Before any treatment starts, diagnosis has to be sure. Infections can not be diagnosed by personal view of experts, a culture or immunological test is needed most times and most times can not be done without the help of a vet.
  2.  Be consequent. Never undertreat the animals. Antibitic treatment has to be done long enough and hard enough to kill all microorganism. If you have to treat an infection with Mycoplasm, 10 days of treatment are a minumum, even when the symptoms disappear after 2 days.
  3. Treat them all. If you have more than one single pet, and they breath the same air or have direct contact, you should treat them all to avoid a ping-pong effect. I you have a mousery or are a breeder, you will have to cull ALL individuals with symptoms without any exception, because it is difficult to cure heavily symptomatic individuals and they could be a source for re-infection.
  4. Do not breed for several weeks or better do not breed for several months, when you have an infection in your stud. The immune system of youngsters is not ripe and they might carry forward the infection and perghaps even a resistant infection to the next generation.
  5. Do not use OTC products, which are OTC because they are mild. We do not want to be mild to the infections, we want to hit them hard and eradicate them forever.

2011-08-25







2011-08-19: Tricolor buck

This buck has  little k-factors - only a headspot and a dot at the belly are white. Nevertheless he is father of 30 babies now, because he is the biggest Tricolor I ever had.



2011-08-18: Tricolor bucks





2011-08-16: Tricolor buck




2011-08-14: Black Tan Satin Merle





2011-08-13: Farin Urlaub - Glücklich (click the pic)

our 4 dogs and a happy friend




2011-07-25: Black Tan Satin Merle




2011-07-17: Gorilla Drummer



2011-06-25: Recessive Red Merle

This new line has a low type, but it is a good start.




2011-06-22: Two videos of albino mice giving birth and cleaning the babies:






                      

2011-05-22: The new Outdoor Cage for Harvest mice:




2011-05-10: Two dogs dining in the restaurant




2011-05-09: Shit in the box

Normally I offer to buy a transportbox in a petshop and look for a carton, when I send mice by animal transport services. I am quite busy during the last weeks and therefore I ask people, to send a box and carton to me before. This works quite well normally, but today I got a tiny box for 6 mice, which contained the old diarrhoe of her own mice. Not enough that the box is much to small for sending 6 mice,  she did not even clean the box a little bit.

Tomorrow I will send back the shit. Without mice.




2011-05-05: Gene Doctors Milk Mice

 

An experimental farm in Russia could soon be producing human breast milk substitutes following successful milking trials on mice, scientists report.

Thanks to human genes spliced into their genome, the mice are the first genetically modified animals to produce lactoferrin. This human breast milk protein protects babies from viruses and bacteria while the infants' immune systems are still developing.

The ultimate aim of the Russian team, and of similar research projects in other countries, is to extract lactoferrin from the milk and use the protein to create healthier baby formula.

"Mouse milk is very protein-rich, and this can also translate into very high concentrations of transgenic protein," Patrick van Berkel, a senior director at the Danish biotech company Genmab, wrote in an email.

Breastfeeding mothers typically produce 4 to 5 grams (0.1 to 0.2 ounces) of lactoferrin per liter (about a quart) of milk.

The modified mice churned out maximum concentrations equal to 160 grams (6 ounces) per liter, said team member Elena Sadchikova of the Institute of Gene Biology at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow.

But that doesn't mean the mice themselves are about to become biotech dairy animals, Sadchikova cautioned.

To milk mice, the research team had to anaesthetize the rodents and use specially adapted pumps fitted to their tiny teats.

 

If attempted commercially, "the scale at which this would have to happen would be a logistic and technical nightmare," van Berkel said. "Larger animals such as rabbits, goats, or cows are required for commercial application."

 

Source: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/bigphotos/68177413.html

 

2011-05-03: The orangutan and the hounddog:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqXBB89OFf4


2011-04-28: Have a look to this lovely video:




2011-04-17: Manni and his bone 



2011-04-16:

Here is an update: The Tricolor litter from the old line is a little bit older now:


Gerettet! Saved Souls:





2011-04-15: Gabriel & Stanley. Could we learn from them?



2011-04-13: Earthlings



2011-04-12: Competition drives cooperation among closely related sperm of deer mice

 

Among the extraordinary adaptations driven by sperm competition is the cooperative behaviour of spermatozoa. By forming cooperative groups, sperm can increase their swimming velocity and thereby gain an advantage in intermale sperm competition. Accordingly, selection should favour cooperation of the most closely related sperm to maximize fitness. Here we show that sperm of deer mice (genus Peromyscus) form motile aggregations, then we use this system to test predictions of sperm cooperation. We find that sperm aggregate more often with conspecific than heterospecific sperm, suggesting that individual sperm can discriminate on the basis of genetic relatedness. Next, we provide evidence that the cooperative behaviour of closely related sperm is driven by sperm competition. In a monogamous species lacking sperm competition, Peromyscus polionotus, sperm indiscriminately group with unrelated conspecific sperm. In contrast, in the highly promiscuous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, sperm are significantly more likely to aggregate with those obtained from the same male than with sperm from an unrelated conspecific donor. Even when we test sperm from sibling males, we continue to see preferential aggregations of related sperm in P. maniculatus. These results suggest that sperm from promiscuous deer mice discriminate among relatives and thereby cooperate with the most closely related sperm, an adaptation likely to have been driven by sperm competition.

 

Source: Heidi S. Fisher & Hopi E. Hoekstra, Nature 463, 801-803 (2010)



2011-04-07: Stolen Fotos

Mice from Chilloutarea Mousery are so beautiful and attractive, that some people steal the fotos from my homepage and try to sell their third class fake mice for a high price. Think twice, before you order fakes! If you want to get good mice, buy from reliable breeders only!



The pics below show a female/mother and a litter of my old line (bred for rich beige colour and dark splashes). She got 18 babies but only 10 Triclors are left after selection, I separated the Splashed. I started to breed out this line  to typey mice from an english line for better type.
I will show pictures later, they lost the rich color and I am not happy with the outcross. British mice are much too pale for my goals to breed beautiful mice, but they have a nice type. Time will show... I will continue with this dark German Tricolor line too.






2011-03-27: This is a carrier...


Our 4 dogs and one of our cats bored from  watching videos...



2011-03-24: Doggy Style Holidays...



2011-03-22: What a wonderful species, ...what a marvellous diversified world we live in...




2011-03-12: Solidarity with the Japanese people and victims of the earthquake and nuclear disaster.



2011-03-09: Pinkeyed Splashed / Tricolors ?

 

Breeders often have some uncertainty about the following points:

1.) Is Spl/* visible in pinkeyed c-diluted mice?

2.) Is Spl/* visible in pinkeyed mice which are NOT c-diluted?

 

Splashed is color-on-color whereas variegated is color-on-white. As a general rule Spl/* has an effect only when two C-dilute alleles are also present. The splashed gene disables C-dilutes in patches. Whereever the „splashes“ appear, the coat color remains unaffected leaving the mouse dark (undiluted) in that area.

The color of the splashes are the color of the mouse, which would be visible with the same genetic makeup, but C/* instead of c*/c/*.

Mice, which are C/*, can “carry” Spl/*, but normally it is not visible. A black mouse can be Spl/*, but we do not see the splashes, because blacker than black is not possible.

The contrast in fur color of a splashed mouse is higher, when the basic color, which would be visible if the mouse would not be c-diluted, is dark. The basic color could be a pale color, e.g. lavender (a/a b/b d/d) too, but lavender splashes on a pale cream background are nothing great, at least from my point of view. On the other hand, beauty is in the eyes of the beholder only...

 

Of course the basic color can be a pink eyed dilution too, eg. dove or champagne or Argente. As said before, the contrast should be visible and strong. Therefore from my point of view dove (a/a p/p) or champagne (a/a b/b p/p) with splashes or with Tricolor is nothing great.

 

For better contrast in pinkeyed Splashed or pinkeyed Tricolors Chilloutarea Mousery breeds for Argente Cream Splashed only. Unfortunately the british lines, which I used to improve the type and ears of my own lines, are stubbornly pale, and I have to work hard with the offspring to get them darker and brighter, while trying to keep the benefit of their nice type. This work will keep me busy for a while, especially the missing amount of pheomelanines (not eumelanines) is a problem.

 

Here are pics of a 25 days old Argente Cream Tricolor girl and her 7 weeks old halfsisters.



 

Another interesting point in breeding splashed pinkeyed mice is the interaction between Spl/* and p/p. Normally Spl/* is visible on c-diluted mice only. The C-locus and the P-locus are very close connected on chromosome 7. This is probably the reason for some interaction between Spl/* and p/p. C/* p/p Spl/* mice show (pale) splashes on a pale fur as babies. As described above, there should no splashes be visible on a C/* mouse, since normally they are visible on a c-diluted mouse only. The p/p mouse seems to be different, if you look at the mouse with the eyes of an expert, you will notice splashes.The contrast is lost in adolescence, when the fur darkens:



2011-02-24: 35 Tricolours arrived in UK

 

35 Tricolours from Chilloutarea Mousery arrived in UK. They are the very first Tricolours with the genetic code c*/c* Spl/* s/s in England. 20 bucks and 15 does enjoy the future with each other and the lovely british girlies.  Have fun guys!




2011-02-22: A new medication against alopecia discovered by accident?

 

Click the pic to read the full text:

 

 

Source: Wang L, Million M, Rivier J, Rivier C, Craft N, et al. (2011) CRF Receptor Antagonist Astressin-B Reverses and Prevents Alopecia in CRF Over-Expressing Mice. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16377. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016377.


2011-02-20: Evolution in process

 

The following text is an excerpt from an article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

 

Speciation, the process by which one species splits into two, involves reproductive barriers between previously interbreeding populations. The question of how speciation occurs has rightly occupied the attention of biologists since before Darwin's “On the Origin of Species.”

Studies of recently diverged species have revealed the presence of hybrid sterility genes (colloquially referred to as “speciation genes”), alleles of which are associated with sterility of interspecies hybrids. Mouse Prdm9 is the only known such gene in vertebrate animals. Here we report that the Prdm9 protein has evolved extremely rapidly in its DNA-binding domain, comprising an array of “zinc fingers.” This suggests that hybrid sterility may arise from a mismatch between the DNA-binding specificity of Prdm9 and rapidly evolving DNA. We propose that Prdm9 binds to satellite-DNA repeats evolving rapidly within and between different species. Prdm9 evolution is unusual because other hybrid sterility genes appear only to evolve rapidly in isolated bursts, whereas Prdm9 has evolved rapidly over 700 million years, in many rodent species, diverse primates and other metazoans. This leads to the tantalizing possibility that Prdm9 may have served as a “speciation gene” on other occasions in metazoan evolution, a possibility that will now need to be investigated.

 

The question of how two species originate from one has fascinated biologists since before Darwin's iconic treatise on the subject [1]. Postzygotic reproductive barriers between species are thought to result from the acquisition of genetic incompatibilities as an incidental by-product of divergence between two populations. In its simplest form, this Dobzhansky-Muller model involves genetic interactions between two loci (e.g. a and b) [2]. In isolated populations, new alleles can arise and go to fixation in two isolated populations (A in one and B in the other) since they remain compatible with ancestral alleles. However, a negative epistatic interaction between the two new alleles (A with B) in hybrids might result in sterility or inviability, a hallmark of postzygotic isolation in hybrids between two species [3]. Theory predicts that additional incompatibilities will accumulate rapidly following an initial genetic incompatibility [4]. One of the earliest postzygotic isolating barriers in interspecies hybrids is the sterility of the heterogametic sex (XY males or ZW females), a pattern referred to as Haldane's rule that holds almost universally across animal taxa [3],[5]. Examination of early events in speciation that lead to hybrid sterility (for example [6],[7]) is thus vital to gain insight into this mysterious process. mp3

The first hybrid sterility gene to be discovered was the Drosophila Odysseus-site homeobox (OdsH) gene. The D. mauritiana allele of OdsH causes hybrid male sterility when introgressed into D. simulans together with adjacent loci [8],[9]. OdsH encodes a presumptive DNA-binding protein which is exclusively expressed in male reproductive tissues [9]. OdsH function within Drosophila species remained unclear until recently (ablation of the gene in D. melanogaster has a very modest effect on male fertility [10]) as did the molecular basis for why it causes hybrid sterility. However, the manifestation of hybrid sterility appears to be correlated with rapid evolution of OdsH specifically in its DNA-binding homeobox domain, in the species clade that includes D. mauritiana and D. simulans [11].

A second hybrid sterility gene was discovered not as a Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility but as a result of gene transposition. Hybrids between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, which carry two 4th chromosomes from D. simulans in an otherwise D. melanogaster genetic background, are sterile. This sterility is caused by the transposition of the JYAlpha gene away from the 4th chromosome in D. simulans [12]. Since JYAlpha is required for male fertility, D. melanogaster male flies that only possess D. simulans 4th chromosomes lack JYAlpha and are therefore sterile. In contrast to OdsH, the biological cause of hybrid sterility is well understood but involves no sequence divergence of the underlying sterility gene and only affects a fraction of F2 hybrids.

A third hybrid sterility gene was recently discovered in crosses between the Bogota and USA subpopulations of D. pseudoobscura. F1 males resulting from crosses between Bogota females and USA males are almost completely sterile when young. When aged, however, these F1 males recover partial fertility but produce all female progeny. Intriguingly, a single gene Overdrive (Ovd) was found to be causal for both the segregation distortion and hybrid male sterility [13]. Like OdsH, Ovd encodes a putative DNA-binding protein whose biological function is unclear. Like OdsH, rapid evolution of Ovd in the Bogota lineage appears to be associated with hybrid sterility. Genetic results with Ovd strongly suggest that hybrid sterility is a by-product of intraspecies genomic conflict, manifest as segregation distortion [13].

Prdm9 (Meisetz) is the fourth hybrid sterility gene, the first to be described in vertebrates. It was discovered in crosses between the mouse subspecies Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. Allelic differences at Prdm9 provide the genetic basis for the Hybrid sterility 1 (Hst1) locus, which together with other genetic loci [6],[7],[14], is responsible for spermatogenic failure in sterile hybrids between Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus [15]. Polymorphism linked to Hst1 is associated with sterility traits not only for Mus m. domesticus strains but also, separately, for Mus m. musculus strains [16]. In natural Mus m. musculus populations these polymorphisms appear to have arisen very recently [16]. Prdm9 is a meiosis-specific gene that is only expressed in germ cells entering meiotic prophase in both female and male mice [17]. Loss of Prdm9 causes sterility in both sexes due to impaired meiotic progression at the pachytene stage. Furthermore, nonsynonymous SNPs in human PRDM9 are associated with infertility and azoospermia via meiotic arrest [18],[19]. Prdm9 encodes 3 protein isoforms, of which the largest isoform contains an N-terminal KRAB motif, a central histone H3 Lysine-4-methyltransferase (SET) domain, and several zinc fingers in its carboxy-terminal region (Figure 1). Similar zinc fingers in other proteins have been shown to mediate sequence-specific binding to DNA. The number of zinc fingers encoded in mouse Prdm9 appears to directly affect hybrid sterility. Whereas an allele of Prdm9 encoding 13 zinc fingers causes postzygotic hybrid sterility, an allele containing 14 zinc fingers does not (Figure 1) [15]. The finding that changes in a single DNA-binding determinant appears to be causal for hybrid sterility motivated our analysis to study the evolutionary constraints that shape the sequence and copy number of zinc finger motifs in Prdm9 across a broad taxonomic panel of metazoans, starting with rodents.

 

Source: Oliver et al., PLoS Genet. 2009 December; 5(12): e1000753. download

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779102/?tool=pubmed


2011-02-18: Video – Neomys fodiens (Wasserspitzmaus ; Eurasian Water Shrew)

 

Neomys fodiens occurs throughout Eurasia, to western Siberia, northern Asia Minor, the Pacific coast of Siberia, and North Korea and is found on the banks of both standing or flowing fresh water and adjacent areas. They forage almost exclusively underwater, efficiently preying on aquatic invertebrates such as snails, mollusks, freshwater insects, and also small vertebrates such as fish, amphibians and frogs. Prey are weakened by a poisonous secretion from the submaxillary gland.

 

See a fantastic video (German language) here:

 


2011-02-15: Proteins ?

Proteins are nitrogen-containing substances that are formed by amino acids. They serve as the major structural component of muscle and other tissues in the body. In addition, they are used to produce hormones, enzymes and hemoglobin. Proteins can also be used as energy; however, they are not the primary choice as an energy source. For proteins to be used by the body they need to be metabolized into their simplest form, amino acids. There have been 20 amino acids identified that are needed for growth and metabolism. Twelve of these amino acids are termed nonessential, meaning that they can be synthesized by our body and do not need to be consumed in the diet. The remaining amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body and are described as essential meaning that they need to be consumed in our diets. The absence of any of these amino acids will compromise the ability of tissue to grow, be repaired or be maintained.

The quality of a protein is vital when considering the nutritional benefits that it can provide. Determining the quality of a protein is determined by assessing its essential amino acid composition, digestibility and bioavailability of amino acids (FAO/WHO, 1990).
There are several measurement scales and techniques that are used to evaluate the quality of protein.

Protein Efficiency Ratio

The protein efficiency ratio (PER) determines the effectiveness of a protein through the measurement of animal growth. This technique requires feeding rats a test protein and then measuring the weight gain in grams per gram of protein consumed. The computed value is then compared to a standard value of 2.7, which is the standard value of casein protein. Any value that exceeds 2.7 is considered to be an excellent protein source.

Biological Value

Biological value measures protein quality by calculating the nitrogen used for tissue formation divided by the nitrogen absorbed from food. The biological value provides a measurement of how efficient the body utilizes protein consumed in the diet. A food with a high value correlates to a high supply of the essential amino acids. Animal sources typically possess a higher biological value than vegetable sources due to the vegetable source's lack of one or more of the essential amino acids.

Net Protein Utilization

Net protein utilization is similar to the biological value except that it involves a direct measure of retention of absorbed nitrogen. Net protein utilization and biological value both measure the same parameter of nitrogen retention, however, the difference lies in that the biological value is calculated from nitrogen absorbed whereas net protein utilization is from nitrogen ingested.

Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score

In 1989, the Food & Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in a joint position stand stated that protein quality could be determined by expressing the content of the first limiting essential amino acid of the test protein as a percentage of the content of the same amino acid content in a reference pattern of essential amino acids (FAO/WHO, 1990).

Table 1 provides a measure of the quantity of various proteins using these protein rating scales.


Animal Protein

Typically, all dietary animal protein sources are considered to be complete proteins. That is, a protein that contains all of the essential amino acids. Proteins from vegetable sources are incomplete in that they are generally lacking one or two essential amino acids. Thus, someone who desires to get their protein from vegetable sources (i.e. vegetarian) will need to consume a variety of vegetables, fruits, grains, and legumes to ensure consumption of all essential amino acids. As such, individuals are able to achieve necessary protein requirements without consuming beef, poultry, or dairy. Protein digestibility ratings usually involve measuring how the body can efficiently utilize dietary sources of protein. Typically, vegetable protein sources do not score as high in ratings of biological value, net protein utilization, PDCAAS, and protein efficiency ratio as animal proteins.
Protein from animal sources during late pregnancy is believed to have an important role in infants born with normal body weights. Godfrey et al. (1996) examined the nutrition behavior of more than 500 pregnant women to determine the effect of nutritional intake on placental and fetal growth.
They reported that a low intake of protein from dairy and meat sources during late pregnancy was associated with low birth weights.
In addition to the benefits from total protein consumption, elderly subjects have also benefited from consuming animal sources of protein. Diets consisting of meat resulted in greater gains in lean body mass compared to subjects on a lactoovovegetarian diet (Campbell et al., 1999).
High animal protein diets have also been shown to cause a significantly greater net protein synthesis than a high vegetable protein diet (Pannemans et al., 1998). This was suggested to be a function of reduced protein breakdown occurring during the high animal protein diet.

There have been a number of health concerns raised concerning the risks associated with protein emanating primarily from animal sources. Primarily, these health risks have focused on cardiovascular disease (due to the high saturated fat and cholesterol consumption), bone health (from bone resorption due to sulfur-containing amino acids associated with animal protein) and other physiological system disease.

Life span can be extended in animals by restricting food availability (food low in aminoacids), as could be shown in several studies, e.g. Orentreich et al., 1993, Sun et al., 2009.

Vegetable Protein

Vegetable proteins, when combined to provide for all of the essential amino acids, provide an excellent source for protein considering that they will likely result in a reduction in the intake of saturated fat and cholesterol. Popular sources include legumes, nuts and soy.
Vegetable sources of protein also provide numerous other nutrients such as phytochemicals and fiber that are also highly regarded in the diet.
Soy is the most widely used vegetable protein source in humans.
The American and European populations consumes a relatively low intake of soy protein compared to Asian countries. Soy protein was reported to be equivalent to animal protein with a PDCAAS score of 1.0, the highest possible rating (Hasler, 2002).
Soy's quality makes it a very attractive alternative for those seeking non-animal sources of protein in their diet and those who are lactose intolerant. Soy is a complete protein with a high concentration of BCAA's. There have been many reported benefits related to soy proteins relating to health and performance (including reducing plasma lipid profiles, increasing LDL-cholesterol oxidation and reducing blood pressure).          mp3
Based upon a multitude of studies examining the health benefits of soy protein the American Heart Association issued a statement that recommended soy protein foods in a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol to promote heart health (Erdman, 2000). The health benefits associated with soy protein are related to the physiologically active components that are part of soy, such as protease inhibitors, phytosterols, saponins, and isoflavones (Potter, 2000).



CONCLUSIONS

It does appear that protein from animal sources is an important source of protein. However, the potential health concerns associated with a diet of protein consumed primarily from animal sources should be acknowledged. With a proper combination of sources, vegetable proteins may provide similar benefits as protein from animal sources.

Many commercial food blocks are designed for maximizing profit of the suppliers. Therefore often the cheapest sources of essential aminoacids are used: by-products of animals (slaughterhouse garbage).

Mice should be fed according to there individual need, old bucks for example need less animal protein (and have an extended lifespan then) than females during late pregnancy and less than growing puppies.

Source: Most parts of this text are an excerpt from Hoffmann, JR & Falvo, MJ, Journal of Sports, Science and Medicine (2004) 3, 118-130. The publication is available to the public under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.


2011-02-09:  You're the one that I want:



2011-02-04: The Succulent Karoo Research Station

in Goegap Nature Reserve, South Africa aims to increase our knowledge about the ecology of the Hardeveld of Namaqualand with special reference to the important role of small mammals. Its focus is on the socio-ecology of small mammals, to understand social behavior like group-living and monogamy and to come to an integrative understanding of social flexibility. Its scientific merit is represented in publications in high ranking international scientific journals. The Research Station offers a convenient and pleasant workplace for scientists from all over the world in an unique environment. The Research Station aims to promote Goegap Nature Reserve and Namaqualand as a tourist destination.

 

Since this year they offer Striped Mouse Safaris of 2-4 weeks for everybody fascinated by nature and especially striped mice. This is an experience for easy going, uncomplicated people who love nature. Click the pic to find out more:

 

 


2011-02-02: What are Modifiers?


Modifiers are genes that modify traits, which are caused by major genes. Colour modifiers are genes that modify a fur colour. Modifiers can range from very subtle to very extreme. Some modifiers even have the ability to change the physical look of a mouse to something totally different.


The existence of both MAJOR GENES and MODIFIER GENES needs to be understood in order to plan a rational breeding strategy for improvement to all varieties. The familiar monogenic traits in mice are controlled by the Mendelian transmission of major genes. These may be sex-linked (=gonosomal), autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant and this is what many regard as the genetics of mice. However, the genetics of mice goes far deeper than this.

Polygenic traits, determined by the additive action of groups of genes of small effect, include the exhibition traits such as body size, ear size, tail thickness, fur density and others, as well as colour modifications to the expression of the major genes. All of these are controlled by modifiers, the many genes of small effect acting together. Superimposed on this polygenic variation could be additional minor genetic or nongenetic factors eg tendency for molding with age or modification by environmental factors, eg being raised with a lot of milk early in life in a smaller litter can result in better size.


The selection of modifiers differs in different studs. While many breeders in UK are influenced by old standards and try to select for paler colours in many breds, other breeders like myself just try to select the opposite, darker and brighter colours in most varieties.


Typical examples for colour modifiers in mice are the k-factors, which influence the amount of dark and white in piebalds (see PIEBALD for details).


Another example are the pheomelanine enhancers, which have been accumulated in England in Dominant Red (Ay/*) mice for many decades. These pheomelanine enhancers influence the redness and darkness in other varieties than dominant red too. They can be separated from the major genes (eg. Ay, dominant red) and transferred to mice with other major genes. It is possible to transfere these modifiers to Recessive Red mice (e/e) and of course the Cinnamons and Agoutis, which come up in Ay lines carry them, as can be seen in the following examples.


The picture below shows Recessive Reds with different amounts of modifiers (Pheomelanine) enhancers. They are all e/e, but the modifiers make them look like something totally different.




2011-02-02: Fur Kills – Video:


   

2011-01-31: Why are many Animals, Like many People, Getting Fatter?

Pets and, puzzlingly, lab animals have grown steadily fatter in the last 20 years.

A statistical analysis of more than 20,000 animals suggests that the obesity epidemic is spreading to family pets, wild animals living in close proximity to humans, and animals housed in research centres — perhaps indicating that environmental factors beyond diet and exercise are at least partly to blame for expanding waistlines.

Read more here: http://www.nature.com/news/2010/101124/full/news.2010.628.html


2011-01-30:

Siberian hamsters: Depression Symptoms Linked to Nighttime Light Exposure

 

Dim-light exposure at night—comparable to having a television on in a darkened room—appears to be capable of triggering depression in animals.


Exposure to constant bright light at night seems to be a trigger for depression-like symptoms in mice, Randy Nelson, Ph.D., a professor and chair of neuroscience at Ohio State University, reported in the December 28, 2009, Behavioral Brain Research.

Now Nelson, Tracy Bedrosian, a doctoral student in neuroscience at Ohio State University, and their colleagues have found that exposure to even dim light at night appears to be capable of triggering depression-like symptoms in hamsters.

Bedrosian presented these new study data on November 17 at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in San Diego.

The study involved 16 female Siberian hamsters that had their ovaries removed to ensure that ovarian hormones would not interfere with the study's results. Half were housed in a standard light-dark cycle of 16 hours of light (at 150 lux) followed by eight hours of total darkness. The other half were exposed to a different light-dark cycle—16 hours of light (at 150 lux) followed by eight hours of dim light (5 lux), which was the equivalent of having a television on in a darkened room.

After eight weeks in their lighting condition, the animals were tested for depression-like behaviors.

The researchers used two tests for depression-like behaviors—the sucrose-intake test and Porsolt's swim test—that are used in basic research and in the preclinical testing of antidepressants by pharmaceutical companies.

In the sucrose-intake test, rodents are offered sugar water, which they usually like. If they do not show much interest in it, it is interpreted to be a sign of the anhedonia that depressed patients exhibit.

In the swim test, rodents are placed in a swim tank and observed to see whether they continue to search for an escape from the water or give up and just float on top of the water. If they give up, it is interpreted as a sign of the despair or helplessness that depressed patients often feel.

The hamsters exposed to dark nights enjoyed sugar water, whereas the hamsters exposed to dim-light nights enjoyed it less, suggesting that the dim-light hamsters were experiencing anhedonia. The hamsters exposed to dark nights did not give up in their search for an escape from water, whereas the hamsters exposed to dim-light nights did, suggesting that the dim-light hamsters were experiencing despair or helplessness.

In brief, it looked as if the dim light at night might have initiated depression in hamsters that had been exposed to it, the researchers concluded.

The researchers then compared the brains of the hamsters that had been exposed to dim-light nights with the brains of the hamsters that had been exposed to dark nights to gain some understanding of how the dim light might have actuated depression.

The hippocampi from the dim-light group had significantly fewer dendritic spines than those from the dark night group. Since the hippocampus is known to play a key role in depressive disorders, the researchers concluded that dim light might have reduced the number of dendritic spines in the hippocampus and thereby initiated the depression-like symptoms.

But how might dim light have brought about dendritic spine changes? The stress hormone cortisol didn't seem to be implicated since the researchers found no difference in cortisol levels between the two groups of hamsters. Their hypothesis is that the hormone melatonin might have been the culprit. They are planning to conduct further research to see whether that is the case.

Meanwhile, whether the results from these two animal studies hold implications for humans remains to be seen. “In seasonal affective disorder (SAD), people receive less light than normal due to the short day lengths,” Bedrosian told Psychiatric News. “Since we studied more light, not less, our work is not directly related to SAD. However, our findings do suggest that chronic exposure to light at night could be one contributor to depressive disorders unrelated to predispositions for SAD or other conditions.”

Regarding the question of whether people should avoid even night-lights to minimize the risk of getting night-light-initiated depression, Bedrosian had this to say: “We will need to do future work to understand how light at night affects mood in humans. However, if there is indeed a link, then perhaps people should minimize exposure to artificial light at nighttime. So, avoiding sleeping with a night-light, not falling asleep with the bedroom TV on all night long, and perhaps using dark curtains to block out street light might be a good idea. Exposure to light at night is unnatural and has only arisen in the past century, so minimizing exposure certainly can't hurt.” Graphic

 

Source: http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/content/45/24/26.1.full


2011-01-27:

Normally mus musculus is one of the most fertile species on this planet. Nevertheless sometimes fertility is worse than expected.

Some factors decrease fertility:
- old age
- inbreeding (if you do not take care)
- chemical substances (e.g. antibiotics)
- overweight / high amount of body fat
- lack of essential aminoacids (animal proteins)
- lack of vitamine E

We can try to take influence on all factors. A good source for natural vitamine E is found in germinating seeds. Download mp3.



It is important to take care to give very fresh and clean sprouts only and to give only as much as is eaten within an hour.


A good source for essential aminoacids is puppy food for dogs or cats.


2011-01-24: A chocolate Tricolor and his chocolate Splashed sister. They are 3 weeks old. I do not like choco Spl/* very much, the contrast in blacks is much better.


 

2011-01-08: The next Rodentia in March 2011:



 

2011-01-03: Chilloutarea Mousery Tricolour on the frontpage of the british NMC News. 

Click the pic to be linked to the NMC and join the club!


2010-12-31 / 2011-01-01



2010-12-28: NeonMice™

   NeonMice™ are the world's first commercially available Fluorescent mice.  They are genetically modified 'glow-in-the-dark' mice.  When viewed under a standard UV black light, NeonMice™ emit green, red, blue, or yellow light.




WICHTIGER HINWEIS: Die Beiträge aus 2010 mit vielen Fotos und informativen Texten befinden sich jetzt in ARCHIVES 2010.

IMPORTANT NOTE: The fotos and texts from 2010 are available in ARCHIVES 2010. No mp3 download

Click the table of contents below to be linked: